Background Readings

The National Research Council’s 2007 report, reprinted:

Krewski, D., et al. 2010. Toxicity testing in the 21st century: A vision and a strategy. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 13: 51-138.

The Toxicological Sciences’ series on the NRC report:

Andersen M. E., and Krewski, D. 2009. Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: Bringing the Vision to Life. Toxicological Sciences, 107: 324-30.

Andersen, M. E., and Krewski, D. 2010. The Vision of Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: Moving from Discussion to Action. Toxicological Sciences, 117 (1): 17-24.

Bus, J. S. and Becker, R. A. 2009. Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A View from the Chemical Industry. Toxicological Sciences, 112: 297-302.

Chapin, R. E. and Stedman, D. B. 2009. Endless Possibilities: Stem Cells and the Vision for Toxicology Testing in the 21st Century. Toxicological Sciences, 112:17-22.

Cohen Hubal, E. A. 2009. Biologically Relevant Exposure Science for 21st Century Toxicity Testing. Toxicological Sciences, 111: 226-232.

Hartung, T. 2009. A Toxicology for the 21st Century—Mapping the Road Ahead. Toxicological Sciences, 109: 18-23.

Holsapple, M., et al. 2009. Forum Series: The ‘‘Vision’’ for Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: Promises and Conundrums. Toxicological Sciences, 107: 307-308.

MacDonald, J. S. and Robertson, R. T. 2009. Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: A View from the Pharmaceutical Industry. Toxicological Sciences, 110: 40-46.

Meek B., and Doull, J. 2009. Pragmatic Challenges for the Vision of Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century in a Regulatory Context: Another Ames Test? . . .or a New Edition of ‘‘the Red Book’’? Toxicological Sciences, 108: 19-21.

Walker, N. J. and Bucher, J. R. 2009. A 21st Century Paradigm for Evaluating the Health Hazards of Nanoscale Materials? Toxicological Sciences, 110: 251-254.

From a Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health series:

Andersen, M. E. et al. 2010. The Future of Toxicity Testing. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 13 (2-4): 163 – 196.

Dellarco, V., Henry, T., Sayre, P., Seed, J., Bradbury, S. 2010. Meeting The Common Needs of a More Effective and Efficient Testing and Assessment Paradigm for Chemical Risk Management. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 13 (2-4): 347– 360.

Firestone, M., Kavlock, R., Zenick, H., Kramer, M., the U.S. EPA Working Group on the Future of Toxicity Testing, 2010. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Strategic Plan for Evaluating the Toxicity of Chemicals. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 13 (2-4): 139-162.

Hartung, T., 2010. Lessons Learned from Alternative Methods and their Validation for a New Toxicology in the 21st Century. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 13 (2-4): 277-290.

Locke, P. A., Myers Jr., D. B. 2010. Implementing the National Academy’s Vision and Strategy for Toxicity Testing: Opportunities and Challenges Under the U.S. Toxic Substances Control Act. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 13 (2-4): 376 – 384.

Rhomberg, L.R. 2010. Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: How will it Affect Risk Assessment? Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 13 (2-4): 361-375.

Stephens, M. L. 2010. An environmental protection perspective on 21st century toxicology. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 13 (2-4): 291-298.

Zhang, Q., Bhattacharya, S., Andersen, M. E., and Conolly, R. 2010. Computational Systems Biology and Dose-Response Modeling in Relation to New Directions in Toxicity Testing. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part B, 13 (2-4): 253 – 276.

Other readings:

Andersen, M.E. 2010. Calling on Science: Making “Alternatives” the New Gold Standard. ALTEX, 27: 135-143.

Cohen, K. M., et al. 2008. Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: Better Results, Less Use of Animals. The Environmental Forum, 25: 46-51.

Collins, F. S., Gray, G. M., and Bucher, J. R. 2008. Transforming environmental health protection. Science, 319: 906-907.

Judson, R. S., et al. 2010. In Vitro Screening of Environmental Chemicals for Targeted Testing Prioritization: The ToxCast Project. Environmental Health Perspectives, 118: 485-492.

Krewski, D., et al. 2009. Toxicity Testing in the 21st Century: Implications for Human Health Risk Assessment. Risk Analysis, 29 (4): 474-479.