Reading round-up

A few good links to share…

A UCLA scientist is using tiny worms – C. elegans – in a high-throughput, automated format, to screen chemicals for reproductive toxicity.

Patrick-Allard-Lab-0841_mid_credit-UCLA Fielding SPH

Patrick Allard (photo credit: UCLA Fielding School of Public Health)

“With this approach we can now simultaneously screen hundreds of compounds for their toxicity to the reproductive process, which can help to prioritize the chemicals that need further analysis,” Allard said. “Beyond that, once we find compounds that are repro-toxic, we can look further into the stages of reproduction that are affected, and how they are affected.”

Organovo's Novogen 3D bioprinter (photo credit: Organovo)

Organovo’s Novogen 3D bioprinter (photo credit: Organovo)

Chemistry World has a good overview of the growing skin 3D-bioprinting industry, noting that while the initial push is coming from cosmetics companies, “The expertise gained could feed into pharmaceutical research, and even help enable patients’ own cells to be made into almost perfectly compatible skin grafts and eventually replacement organs.”

And in the NIH Director’s Blog, Francis Collins describes NIH-funded efforts to develop neural tissue chips that predict neurotoxicity:

Cultivated neural tissue (photo credit: Michael Schwartz, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Cultivated neural tissue (photo credit: Michael Schwartz, University of Wisconsin-Madison

Each cultured 3D “organoid”—which sits comfortably in the bottom of a pea-sized well on a standard laboratory plate—comes complete with its very own neurons, support cells, blood vessels, and immune cells! As described in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences [2], this new tool is poised to predict earlier, faster, and less expensively which new or untested compounds—be they drug candidates or even ingredients in cosmetics and pesticides—might harm the brain, particularly at the earliest stages of development.

Collins also co-authored a Nature commentary summarizing six important lessons learned from Human Genome Project, on its 25th anniversary: embrace partnerships, maximize data-sharing, plan for data analysis, prioritize technology development, address the societal implications of advances, be audacious yet flexible… Read the details here.

3D bioprinting 3D cell & tissue culture alternative toxicity testing organs-on-chips stem cells

Brain-in-a-dish: researchers create “the most complete model of a human brain ever grown in a lab”

Photo courtesy of Ohio State University

Photo courtesy of Ohio State University

Ohio State University researchers Rene Anand and Susan McKay say they have grown a miniaturized human brain from re-programmed adult skin cells. The structure is described in this Washington Post story as “no bigger than a pencil eraser” and is said to contain “all the major structures and 99 percent of the genes present in the brain of a five-week-old fetus.”

“It’s a scalable model that can be engineered to carry the genetic variants that give rise to all these diseases … and it gives us incredible access to things we never have done before,” lead researcher Anand told The Washington Post. “We can screen drugs, we can ask questions, we can follow the development at every stage.”

Because the researchers are patenting their process, they have not released data describing their methods. (They have also formed a commercial startup.) But according to an OSU press release, the team has already used the technique to model autism, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s disease “in-a-dish,” and hopes to receive funding from the Small Business Technology Transfer program to use the model in drug development.

The announcement comes on the heels of another advance in organotypic brain modeling – a 3D bioprinted structure developed by Rodrigo Lozano and colleagues at the University of Wollongong in Australia. A functional brain “organoid” that can be subjected to environmental manipulations, or genetically engineered to reproduce inherited conditions, holds great promise for human-relevant toxicity testing, more efficient drug-candidate screening, and the study of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases.

3D bioprinting 3D cell & tissue culture disease-in-a-dish drug discovery stem cells

Alternatives going mainstream

Things are getting interesting when high-tech replacements for animal testing catch the eye of online financial publications like The Economist, Fortune Magazine, Forbes, and CNN Money

Some stories on organs-on-chips and 3D bioprinting from just the last few weeks:

The Economist: Towards body-on-a-chip

Fortune Magazine: This new technology could do away with animal testing

CNN Money: 3-D printers could soon make human skin

Forbes: L’Oreal seeks quantum leap with 3D printed skin

Congratulations to the Wyss Institute, winners of the London Design Museum’s “Design of the Year” award for their organs-on-chips.

Named Design of the Year by a jury chaired by the artist Anish Kapoor, it is the first time the award has gone to a design from the field of medicine, beating off competition from Google’s self-driving car, a project to clean up plastic from the sea and an advertising campaign to convince people to buy misshapen fruit.

3D bioprinting alternative toxicity testing organs-on-chips